Here in Chicago we've had ten days of above average temperatures, reaching up to 10°C this Sunday (that’s 50°F for those of us still in need of fully adopting the metric system). A great way to get a perspective on global climate and temperature trends is to look at the maps available from NOAA (the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Here's a map comparing December 2015 to average December temperatures.
Notice how the Midwest is looking decidedly red? We'll have to wait to see the map for this January. We've had some colder weather as well in January, so it will be interesting to see how it compares. This warmer weather has me thinking about the ways that our local ecology is affected by unseasonal warmth. Species that are normally hunkered down or dormant may be receiving cues that don't line up with an average January.
On a weekend trip to the Morton arboretum, the sled dogs there for a special event had to "sled" without snow (they pulled wheeled carts instead). Other signs, as well, suggested something other than a January afternoon. A honeybee decided to land on our windshield while the car was parked. Worker bees are usually huddled together in their hive during the coldest months.
Need a flower fix in January? Witch hazel is a good bet, at least this winter. These flowers look to be just starting to open, and although they are small, a little splash of color in winter is still a treat. This is Hamamelis 'Brevipetala,' which is a cross between an Asian and a North American species of witch hazel. Although considered a winter-flowering species, I'm not sure if you can regularly find it flowering in January or not (perhaps I will have to compare in future years). Even so, what creature might be out and about in winter to pollinate such a flower? Apparently owlet moths, which can be active at night if the temperature is above freezing. Although these moths often eat sap from damaged trees, they have also been observed visiting witch hazel flowers. These industrious moths have the ability to raise their body temperature through shivering, allowing flight when other insects are grounded.
Although there's much to enjoy about a mild winter day, it's not without its concerns. Check out this article from the New York Times about the mild winter in 2012. Early warming can often be followed by freezing temperatures, leaving plants or insects exposed and vulnerable.
Have you seen anything that you might normally consider to be a "sign of spring" this winter?
Brittany & Leah with tools at the ready. Erin hauling out invasive plants.
I am happy to share another guest post from a student in Environmental Science.
How can one best enjoy the first days of beautiful autumn briskness and weather? What better way than to benefit the environment by trimming back invasive species and promoting ecological restoration? On Thursday, September 24, Dr. Schrotenboer’s Environmental Science class was able to aid in the conflict against invasive plant species in a hands-on lab session. Only about a five-minute walk from Trinity Christian College’s campus, the class was introduced to Shamim Graff, a specialist at Lake Katherine. After a brief, physical explanation of our target victims, the class got to work along the hillside prairie, cutting down and removing harmful plant species such as Buckthorn, Teasel, and Honeysuckle.
But why go through all the work of removing these plants in the first place? Years ago, before human settlement, Lake Katherine would have been an untouched wooded, prairie, and wetlands landscape, filled with native plant species that grew and flourished harmoniously. However, as civilization arrived and settled in the region, foreign plant species began to feel very at home, as well. Before long, the unmonitored intruders began choking native species as they quickly reproduced, blocked out sunlight, and altered the soil balance; crucial elements to survival and health of the pre-existing plants. Additionally, as Graff added, “Invasive plant species can be very tricky to remove. Buckthorn, for instance, should only be removed by trimming, as pulling by the roots will upset the soil. Control burn can sometimes be an effective approach to a more permanent elimination, but in today’s day-in-age the actually undertaking can be difficult to coordinate and monitor.”
Ultimately, the day proved successful with large areas of prairie cleared, plenty of fresh air, and trivial poison ivy exposure. Students experienced a valuable lesson in ecological care and restoration, with a special benefit being the project area was located in the campus’ own backyard.
This is a guest post written by a student in my Environmental Science class this fall.
On the fateful afternoon of Thursday, September 24, 2015, the students in Environmental Science from Trinity Christian College marched toward Lake Katherine, led by their fearless leader, Commander S. While dodging cars and carrying their packs under the hot sun, the students were preparing for battle with the aliens that had landed next to the Cal-Sag trail. Upon arrival, they were greeted by the forward officer who had been holding down the fort, Shamim Graff. General Graff gave directions on how to identify the invaders who had camouflaged themselves into the hillside, and soon the battle began. But these aliens could not be fought with lightsabers or phasers – instead they had to be fought with clippers and gloves, for these aliens were not extra-terrestrial beings, they were invasive plants.
Long before the Chicagoland was settled, the area now known as Lake Katherine flourished with native species: switchgrass, milkweed, oak trees, and many more. But as the area became more urban and people began planting foreign flowers and trees for aesthetic reasons, the native species began to disappear as the new species took hold, stealing valuable resources such as sunlight and soil nutrients. Buckthorn, Phragmites, and Teasel all began to grow, replacing the natural prairie with foreign plants. Because of this, efforts have been made to remove the invasive species, and promote native species, so that the natural ecosystem can continue to exist. Many animals and insects depend on the native species, and would die out with the native species. Removal of the invasive species allows the native species to get the sunlight and nutrients they need and have ample space to grow and flourish again.
The battle was fierce. “These things are everywhere!” quipped Sergeant Brady Otte as he chopped down another Phragmites plume. One particular challenge was the steep slope on which the plants were growing. Students had to discern what plants were invasive as they clung to the side of the hill, wary of tumbling to the trail below. Luckily, no students fell as they worked, but many who had foregone gloves experienced small cuts on their hands, and students wearing shorts frequently checked for poison ivy. By the end of the day, the hill had been cleared of invasive species leaving the native plants behind, and the students were victorious. Commander S. gave the following summary during the victory celebrations: “It is really rewarding to see the work that can be accomplished with so many people working hard at removing the invasive species. By removing the shrubs that could shade the prairie, we are allowing a lot more light to reach the prairie plants, which will help them thrive.” Clearly the actions of the students had a positive impact on the ecosystem of the lake, and the students marched back to campus, celebrating their victory.
~Lucas Vander Wal
Gensbug-Markham prairie with blazing star, goldenrod, and wild quinine.
The prairies of the Chicago area are ablaze with summer wildflowers. I've been out trying to enjoy what I consider to be one of the best times of year to see the prairies. One of my favorite wildflowers is dense blazing star, Liatris spicata, which has spikes of purple clusters of flowers. A recent visit to Gensburg-Markham prairie, part of the Indian Boundary prairies, did not disappoint. The mix of blazing star, towering grasses, and other wildflowers displays the beauty of God's creation.
I was also treated to a spectacle of monarch butterflies. Although in years previous I had only seen a few monarchs all summer, I saw at least a dozen (probably more) during one morning walk. With monarchs in decline in the Eastern United States for several years, this makes me hopeful that they may be making a rebound. As you may know, monarchs are amazing in their migration ability. Several generations live all their lives in our part of the world, and then in the fall, a new batch of butterflies makes the migration south (mostly to Mexico), never having been there before. Hopefully there will be good reports about the migrants that make the flight to Mexico this fall and overwinter there.
Monarch butterflies on blazing star and rattlesnake master flowers.
Another fun place to visit not far from Trinity is the Little Red Schoolhouse Nature Center. The grounds near the nature center feature a rain garden demonstration and a restored prairie, and some remnant areas of prairie are just a short hike down well maintained trails.
Little Red Schoolhouse Nature Center, with wild bergamot blooming in the foreground.
Where ever you are, I hope you have a chance to get out and explore the beauty of God's world.
Little explorer at Gensburg-Markham prairie
Citizen science is a great way for anyone to get involved in contributing to scientific research. Citizen scientists come from all walks of life, from those highly trained in science to those who have an interest in science, nature, or maybe a particular kind of plant, animal or habitat. Projects can involve making observations about birds or plants, sampling water quality, or analyzing data online.
A recent citizen science effort was launched to better understand Chicago's wildlife ecology. It's Chicago Wildlife Watch. Now, perhaps you are thinking, how much wildlife is there in Chicago? Perhaps it doesn't have quite the same allure as the African savanna or the tropical rainforest, but there is a lot going on here! In this project, cameras where set up around the city and suburbs, and the photographs are available online for citizen scientists (i.e., anyone who has access to the internet and wants to help out) to classify. Not surprisingly, a lot of the shots don't show any animals, but it's a real treat when you get to an image that has captured Chicago's wildlife.
I'm going to keep looking in hopes of a flying squirrel! That's one species that I've never seen in person, so a camera trap photo might have to do.
Yesterday I attended a conference in celebration of 100 years of the Cook County Forest Preserve District. When I first moved to the Chicago area, I was impressed by how much land had been set aside in the forest preserves. The conference provided an opportunity to learn more about just how much land is involved and how the preserves got their start.
This infographic from the forest preserve district gives a sense of how much land is involved.
From the Forest Preserves of Cook County:
One of the goals in establishing the forest preserves was to "preserve the flora in its primeval state." The early founders may have been a bit naive about the idea of preservation, thinking of it as simply setting aside land, but we are greatly indebted to their efforts today. Without their work, much of this land would likely be developed today.
Management has come a long way since 100 years ago. Whereas forest fires used to be seen as a major threat, today prescribed burns are a major part of keeping forests, savannas, and prairies healthy. Here's Hidden Pond Woods this spring after a manged burn:
One of my favorite forest preserves to visit is Black Partridge Woods, which is a little north of Lemont. On a recent visit, hillsides were covered with woodland phlox, shooting star, may apples, and wild ginger.
So if you are in the Chicago area, take the opportunity to get out and enjoy some of the 69,000+ acres of forest preserves!
Yesterday, a unique piece of equipment arrived in the biology department. It's a quadcopter drone for taking aerial photographs for ecology and environmental science projects.
After some prep work yesterday, the drone was ready for her first flight today. My first stop for aerial shots were the campus wildflower basins. These are detention basins that help deal with storm water run-off on campus, and they are also planted with native species to promote local biodiversity. Seeing them from above gives quite a different perspective.
Here's the basin across from the art building:
The basin was recently mowed to promote new spring growth of the native plants. From this perspective you can really see the clumps of individual plants and all the different shades of green.
Here's the basin behind the gym:
This basin gets a lot of more standing water, so you can see the cattails growing in the bottom.
I'm excited to keep working on my drone flying skills and get more shots of these areas through the seasons to create a time series. Another project I have in mind is to photograph the campus woods, which are being affected by the death of ash trees due to the emerald ash borer.
Any other suggestions for fun ecology projects that could be informed by drone-based photography?
Milkweed seedlings are growing in the greenhouse! I stratified the seeds to help get them ready to plant. For milkweed, this basically means putting the seeds in moist sand and storing them in the fridge for about a month. Students in my Survey course then planted the seeds, and they are taking off.
This project is part of a larger effort at Lake Katherine Nature Center, involving removing invasive species and providing native milkweeds for pollinator habitat.
I'm a biology professor at Trinity Christian College. I'll be using this page to share interesting stories related to ecology and conservation at Trinity and in the Chicago area (although I might be tempted to expand my geographic focus upon occasion).